Shawn Zhang, MJLST Staffer
On Tuesday January 24, 2023, the United States Department of Justice, along with the Attorneys General of eight states, have jointly filed a civil antitrust lawsuit against Google for monopolizing multiple digital advertising technology products in violation of Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act.
The Sherman Act (the Act) is the first antitrust statute of the U.S., passed in 1890 as a “comprehensive charter of economic liberty aimed at preserving free and unfettered competition as the rule of trade.” The alleged violations are for Sections 1 and 2 of the Act.
Section 1 is broad and sweeping in scope. Section 1 declares restraint of trade involving “contract, combination, or conspiracy” to be illegal. A key feature of Section 1 is that the words “contract, combination, or conspiracy” are all concerted actions that require more than one party to engage. Therefore, Section 1 cannot apply to unilateral actions. An example of such concerted action would be horizontal price fixing; multiple competitors in the same market agree with each other to set the same price for a given product. The statute then describes the penalty for violating the Act of being a maximum fine of $100 million for corporations, and/or maximum imprisonment of 10 years.
Section 2, unlike Section 1, prohibits monopolization and the language “every person” indicates that it does not require concerted action. A single entity even attempting to monopolize will be penalized. Concerted actions for monopolization or attempts to monopolize are covered as well by the language “or combine or conspire with any other person or persons.” The penalties for violations of either section can be severe, resulting in massive fines and/or imprisonment. Most enforcement actions are civil, but individuals and businesses may be prosecuted by the Department of Justice. However, criminal prosecutions are typically limited in practice.
Google’s business model is driven primarily from their search engine services. The purpose is to deliver users the answers they are seeking. Through this search engine function, Google gains the opportunity to sell advertisements, in which Google earns huge amounts of its revenue from. With its dominance in the search engine industry, Google has obtained dominance in selling advertisements as well.
The complaint alleges that Google monopolizes key digital advertising technologies, collectively referred to as the “ad tech stack,” that website publishers depend on to sell ads. Advertisers rely on this ad tech stack to buy ads and reach potential customers. The complaint also alleges that Google has engaged in a course of anticompetitive and exclusionary conduct over the past 15 years that consists of neutralizing or eliminating ad tech competitors through acquisitions. By doing this, Google has maintained dominance in tools relied on by website publishers and online advertisers. “The Department’s landmark action against Google underscores our commitment to fighting the abuse of market power,” said Associate Attorney General Vanita Gupta. The lawsuit seeks to hold Google accountable for its “longstanding monopolies” in digital advertising technologies that content creators use to sell ads and advertisers use to buy ads on the open internet.
The key contentions to be fought over in this lawsuit includes acquiring competitors, forcing adoption of Google’s tools, distorting auction competition, and auction manipulation. The Act seeks to maintain competition in the markets and eliminate monopolies; the Department of Justice attempts to enforce the spirit of the Act by eliminating the alleged monopolistic behaviors by Google and restoring competition. The agency ultimately seeks both equitable relief on behalf of the American public as well as treble damages for losses sustained by federal government agencies that overpaid for web display advertising.
In light of the developments in antitrust laws, a company must only be found to have violated the statute when it has “engaged in practices that extend beyond competition on the merits.” The plaintiffs must prove that Google’s conduct harms competition, restrains trade, or amounts to monopolization or attempts of monopolization. It is difficult to determine whether Google has engaged in those aforementioned practices, as they could be seen as efficient business conduct. But if the Department of Justice wins the case, it could have huge implications for Google and the rest of the tech industry.
Implications for the Tech Industry
If the Department of Justice succeeds in their lawsuit, Google may face several consequences including divestiture. Microsoft was found to have violated antitrust laws in the late 1990s, and was forced to break up its company into separate companies. Another possible relief would be to force Google to allow other search engines to be the default program for devices including phones and tablets – which the DOJ has attempted to do in the past. “Alphabet Inc.’s Google pays billions of dollars each year to Apple Inc., Samsung Electronics Co. and other telecom giants to illegally maintain its spot as the No. 1 search engine … Google’s contracts form the basis of the DOJ’s landmark antitrust lawsuit, which alleges the company has sought to maintain its online search monopoly in violation of antitrust laws.”
This case could renew the scrutiny against other tech giants such as Meta and Amazon. If the Department of Justice succeeds, it’s highly likely that they will go after other tech giants as well. The victory of the government may begin an era of tech reform, making it easier for competitors to enter the market and thus offering more options for consumers. Tech giants may be forced to reduce their prices if there are more competitors in the market, which may lead to better consumer welfare.
On the other hand, the government’s victory may harm the tech industry. Google and other tech giants are highly efficient businesses that can provide services for lower costs through economies of scale. By forcing them to split up their companies and preventing them from reaching their efficiencies, their services may become more expensive. However, efficiency is not a justification for monopolies, as monopolies largely bring more harm than benefits to consumers by being able to impose unreasonably high prices. An example of price gouging due to monopolistic practice was when Martin Shkreli thwarted competition for the drug Daraprim (used to treat HIV patients) and increased prices from $13.50 per pill to $750.00 per pill.
This lawsuit will be watched closely by regulators and tech giants as it could embolden regulators to go after other companies if this attempt is successful. Regulators are actively looking to rein in big tech companies, as evident by all the antitrust investigations in the past decades, as well as the bill targeting big tech companies currently moving through Congress. The fight between regulators and the tech industry continues, and we look forward to seeing the courts determine a fair ruling that may pave the road for a better economy with greater consumer welfare.